Sunday, November 27, 2016

Belief in God


                                                                       

Khasrow Khan Ardalan with two Kurdish brigades would aid the rising Qajar dynasty, which was launching an uprising to overthrow the Zand dynasty. Khasrow Khan Ardalan would give two divisions of Ardalan Kurds to give aid to the armies of the eunuch, Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar. Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar was mad with blood lust for the Shah, Loft Ali Shah Zand. The Zand were the Kurdish monarchs, who ruled the Persian Empire from Persopolis. The Ardalan were threatened by the Zand as they were their rivals. Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar had led his revolt from Tehran. He had routed Loft Ali Shah Zand from Shiraz, and was persuing him in Kermanshah, where he would be given refuge by the city. Khasrow Khan Ardalan's divisions would aid Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar's divisions in besieging the city. It would eventually fall and Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar would slaughter the inhabitants of Kermanshah, enraged that they gave refuge to his enemy Loft Ali Shah Zand. He would then bring Loft Ali Shah Zand back to Tehran, where he would have him and his heirs castrated, so they could not reproduce. Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar would reign as Shah over Persia in 1789.
Khasrow Khan Ardalan would be given the daughter of his nephew Fath Ali Shah Qajar, Princess Hosn e Jahan. She would be a trojan horse in disguise. She was one of the many offspring of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. This was blessing, considering that Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar was eunuch and could have no offspring. Fath Ali Shah Qajar was governor of Fars at the time when Agha Mohammed Khan Qajar was leader. In 1797 Fath Ali Shah Qajar would succeed Agha Mohamed Khan Qajar as Shah in Persia.
Khasrow Khan Ardalan would be engaged in a war to take the Jaff ancestral lands of Javunrud at this time for its fertile land as the Ardalan needed more resources after their war with the Zands. The Jaff would be forced out of their homeland after he killed their begzada in battle, Qadir Beg Jaff. His brother Khasro Kai Beg Jaff would then lead the tribe out of Javunrud in alliance with the Babans to the Shahrizor Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, becoming Ottoman subjects.
It was Fath Ali Shah Qajar's greatest intention of gaining control of the Vilayet of Kordestan, which was under the control of the Ardalan. The Vilayet of Kordestan was a province, which was essential and of great strategic value as it bordered Russian and Ottoman territories, especially for his son's wars, Abbas Mirza. Fath Ali Shah Qajar would make every effort to subordinate the region to him personally, and eliminate the Ardalan, which could pose a potential threat to him and his son's expansion into Mesopatamia and the Caucasus. He would have Khasro Khan Ardalan, poisened. Then the reigns of power would pass to young and weak son Ghulam Shah Ardalan, which would then pass directly into the hands of his mother, Princess Hosn e Jahan.
Princess Hosn e Jahan would then allow Abbas Mirza to station his Great Persian armies and French Military advisors within the Vilayet of Kordestan. Serpeul would become his command center. Fath Ali Shah Qajar of Persia would sign the treaty of Finkenstein in 1807, entering into an alliance with Napoleon, Emperor of France. His son Abbas Mirza had an ambitious design to conquer and subdue the bordering lawless territorries of both the Ottoman and Russian Empires, which included the Shahrizor Eyalet. He had begun to gain a professional army as Napoleon sent advisors to train their new Persian allies against Russia. Abbas Mirza would test his army in the Caucasus, defeating the Russians at Sultanabad and holding the lines at Erevan, Eckmiadzin, and Nakhchivan. This would be in unison with Napoleon's invasion of Western Russia. However, the war would end bad for both Abbas Mirza and Napoleon Bonaparte. Abbas Mirza with the Persian military depleted would have to surrender the Caucasus to the Russian Empire in the treaty of Gulistan in 1813. This however would not be end of the Franco-Persian menace in the Middle East. Abbas Mirza would continue to train his army under his French Military advisors, but this time his armies would march South against the Ottoman Empire.
The Babans were not getting along with their neighbor in Baghdad the Mamluk Vali Daoud. He had often tried to interfere in the affairs of the Babans, turning Mahmud Pasha Baban's brother Hassan Beg against him. Hassan Beg was Mahmud Pasha Baban's half brother. He was born to a daughter of Khosrou Kai Beg Jaff. He would attempt a coup of power against his brother Mahmud Pasha Baban in Keuy Sanjak as the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad Daoud Pasha would march with an army on Suliamania. Mahmud Baban would repulse Daoud Pasha's attack, and Hassan Beg would flee to Baghdad. Daoud Pasha would ultimately betray Hassan Beg to Mahmud Pasha Baban as a token of peace, ending Hassan Beg's insurrection. Mahmud Pasha Baban would remain suspicious of his neighbor in Baghdad and the Ottoman Empire as a whole.
Princess Hosn e Jahan would be induced by Abbas Mirza to develope more concilliartory relations with the Babans, who were the Ardalan's main rivals for a century. Abbas Mirza needed an alliance with Babans in order to expand into Mesopatamia. He would support the Babans against the Ottomans. In 1821 the Persian General Abbas Mirza would finally launch his invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire had been defeated by the Ottomans, who now held the Caucasus in their possession. Abbas Mirza would again launch an invasion of the Caucasus. His far superior army would defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Erzurum. In response, the new Mamluk Vali of Baghdad Suliaman Pasha would launch an attack on Persia. His attack would be repulsed, and Baghdad would become besieged by Persian forces. Mahmud Pasha Baban would then launch a coup against the Ottomans, allowing Persian Armies into the Shahrizor Eyalet. Together with the armies of Abbas Mirza, they would crush all remnants of the Ottoman regime in the Shahrizor Eyalet. The Shahrizor Eyalet would effectively become Persian territory, and the Jaff would become Persian subjects in 1823 after the signing of the Treaty of Zahab.
Ghulam Shah Ardalan was the father of Adela Khanum, who succeeded his poisoned father, Khasro Khan Ardalan, whose wife was Princess Jahan. The daughter of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, who was the Mother of Ghulam Shah Ardalan. Ghulam Shah Ardalan was a puppet under the complete control of his Mother Princess Jahan, whose orders came directly from Fath Ali Shah Qajar. It was Fath Ali Shah Qajar's greatest intention of gaining control the Vilayet of Kordestan, which was under the control of the Ardalan. The Vilayet of Kordestan was a province, which was essential and of great strategic value as it bordered Russian and Ottoman territories, especially for his son's wars, Abbas Mirza. Fath Ali Shah Qajar would make every effort to subordinate the region to him personally, and eliminate the Ardalan, which could pose a potential threat to him and his son's expansion into Mesopatamia and the Caucasus. He would have Ghulam Shah's father, Khasro Khan Ardalan, poisened. Then the reigns of power would pass to young and weak Ghulam Shah Ardalan, which would then pass directly into the hands of his mother, Princess Jahan.
When Ghulam Shah Ardalan inherited the throne in 1800, it would be during the time of great war with the Jaff. The Ardalan wished to sieze the prized ancestral lands of the Jaff within Javunrud. Javunrud was a bread basket rich in crop produce. The Ardalan were in tough times, and needed more resources in order to survive. They would launch a war to eradicate the Jaff from Javunrud. At this time, Mohammed Pasha Jaff's father, Qadir Beg Jaff was the Begzada of the Jaff tribe. He would fight against the Jaff, and ultimately be killed by the greater Ardalan, who had the might of Persia behind them. His brother Khasro Kai Beg Jaff would lead the Jaff into a mass exodus to the Shahrizor Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire under the control of the Baban, who were the enemies of the Ardalan. Mohamed Pasha Jaff would accompany Khasro Kai Beg Jaff.
Ghulam Shah Ardalan would proceed to mend ties with the Baban, however, under the direction of his mother Princess Jahan. The Baban were beginning to turn against their Ottoman lords, and were seeking new alliances under Mahmud Pasha Baban. During this time Abbas Mirza Qajar had launched an invasion of the Ottoman Empire, and his superior French trained army had annihilaited the Ottoman army at Erzurum. He had also sacked Baghdad. Many of Abbas Mirza armies came from camps within the Ardalan Vilayet of Kordestan. Mahmud Pasha Baban would use the opportunity to succeed from the Ottoman Empire to Persia. They and the Shahrizor Eyalet would come under the informal control of Ghulam Shah Ardalan in 1821. The Babans would hold new beliefs that the Ardalans were their relatives and of the same language.
Mahmud Pasha Baban would later turn against Jaff Sheikh Khalid I Baghdadi as he was to close to the Ottomans. Sheikh Khalid I Baghdadi would flee from the Shahrizor and be given refuge within the Ardalan capitol of Sanandaj by Ghulam Shah Ardalan. It was through Sheikh Khalid I Baghdadi that the Ardalan would come to hold a better view of the Jaff. Before Ghulam Shah Ardalan's death he would give his daughter Adela Khanum as a wife to Mohammed Pasha Jaff's son, Osman Pasha Jaff in 1825. After this the Ardalan would come under the control of Ghulam Shah Ardalan's Qajar Uncle.
The young orphaned Mohamed Pasha Jaff, son of Qadir Beg Jaff who had led the migration of the Jaff from Juanre in Persia to Shahrizor in Mesopatamia, would see upon his father's death the chieftanship of the tribe passed to his Uncle Khosrou Kai Beg Jaff. Mohamed Pasha Jaff would grow up in a hostile world indeed under the Administration of his Uncle as he was deprived of his rightful position as chief of the Jaff. He would see his tribe turned into a lawless band, which raped and pillaged the Shahrizor region. Khosrou Kai would become a firm ally of Abdulrahman Pasha Baban of Suliamania, who was the ruler of Shahrizor, and would uphold his administration of Shahrizor Eyalet with an Iron Rod. The Babans would take Khosrou Kai Beg Jaff's daughters as their wives.
Abdulrahman Pasha Baban began to rise up against the Ottoman Empire in 1813 to make Shahrizor an independent Emirate. He would build a string of fortresses around Shahrizor. This would infuriate Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, and he would dispatch his Mamluk dictator in Baghdad Daoud Pasha to deal with this threat. The Vali Daoud Pasha would march with a military force on the fortifications of Abdulrahman Pasha in Suliamania, and Abdulrahman Pasha would have his own forces mutiny and turn against him. This would be the end of Abdulrahman Pasha's reign. 
Mahmud Pasha Baban would replace Abdulrahman Pasha Baban. He would make Khasrou Kai  Beg Jaff his right hand man, and would call on him to organize 3000 men to deal with any interior threat of the Shahrizor Eyalet. 
Meanwhile Fath Ali Shah Qajar of Persia would sign the treaty of Finkenstein in 1807, entering into an alliance with Napoleon, Emperor of France. His son Abbas Mirza had an ambitious design to conquer and subdue the bordering lawless territorries of both the Ottoman and Russian Empires, which included the Shahrizor Eyalet. He had begun to gain a professional army as Napoleon sent advisors to train their new Persian allies against Russia. Abbas Mirza would test his army in the Caucasus, defeating the Russians at Sultanabad and holding the lines at Erevan, Eckmiadzin, and Nakhchivan. This would be in unison with Napoleon's invasion of Western Russia. However, the war would end bad for both Abbas Mirza and Napoleon Bonaparte. Abbas Mirza with the Persian military depleted would have to surrender the Caucasus to the Russian Empire in the treaty of Gulistan in 1813. This however would not be end of the Franco-Persian menace in the Middle East. Abbas Mirza would continue to train his army under his French Military advisors, but this time his armies would march South against the Ottoman Empire.
The Babans were not getting along with their neighbor in Baghdad the Mamluk Vali Daoud. He had often tried to interfere in the affairs of the Babans, turning Mahmud Pasha Baban's brother Hassan Beg against him. Hassan Beg was Mahmud Pasha Baban's half brother. He was born to a daughter of Khosrou Kai Beg Jaff. He would attempt a coup of power against his brother Mahmud Pasha Baban in Keuy Sanjak as the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad Daoud Pasha would march with an army on Suliamania. Mahmud Baban would repulse Daoud Pasha's attack, and Hassan Beg would flee to Baghdad. Daoud Pasha would ultimately betray Hassan Beg to Mahmud Pasha Baban as a token of peace, ending Hassan Beg's insurrection. Mahmud Pasha Baban would remain suspicious of his neighbor in Baghdad and the Ottoman Empire as a whole. 
In 1821 the Persian General Abbas Mirza would finally launch his invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire had been defeated by the Ottomans, who now held the Caucasus in their possession. Abbas Mirza would again launch an invasion of the Caucasus. His far superior army would defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Erzurum. In response, the new Mamluk Vali of Baghdad Suliaman Pasha would launch an attack on Persia. His attack would be repulsed, and Baghdad would become besieged by Persian forces. Mahmud Pasha Baban would then launch a coup against the Ottomans, allowing Persian Armies into the Shahrizor Eyalet. Together with the armies of Abbas Mirza, they would crush all remnants of the Ottoman regime in the Shahrizor Eyalet. The Shahrizor Eyalet would effectively become Persian territory, and the Jaff would become Persian subjects in 1823 after the signing of the Treaty of Zahab.
During this time within the Jaff tribe under the reign of Khosrou Kai there was a man by the name of Khaled I baghdadi. He would become a great Sufi Sheikh, who would have 12,000 followers from Arabia to India, including the young Mohamed Pasha Jaff. Khaled I Baghdadi would Journey to Delhi and become a desciple of the Sufi Sultan Abdulla, returning to Kurdistan during the reign of Mahmud Pasha Baban. He would speak many great things such as self sacrifice and that all things were brought into this world out of non existance, being revered by the people of Shahrizor and Mahmud Pasha Baban himself, who was a devout follower. Mahmud Pasha Baban would seek Khalid I-Baghdadi's advice in his relations between Persia and the Ottoman Empire, opening all letters of correspondance between him and his brothers from the Sherzade of Kermanshah and the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad in Khaled I Baghdadi's house. A coup against Mahmud Pasha Baban was prevented from his Uncle Abdulla Pasha in cooperation with the Vali of Baghdad Suliaman through the mediation of Khalid I Baghdadi.
Mahmud Pasha Baban grew increasingly paranoid and increasingly Anti Ottoman. He would begin to turn against Khalid I Baghdadi, who had extensive connections within the Ottoman Empire. He would begin to support all the Islamic Imams and Urmias against him, who were against Khaled I Baghdadi as he was a threat to their teachings. In the end Khaled I Baghdadi would be branded a heratic, and he would flee Suliamania for the sanctuary under Abbas Mirza. Mahmud Pasha Baban would go so far as to strip Osman Bey Baban of all power in Suliamania for holding contact with the Ottomans. Osman Bey Baban would flee to Persia for sanctuary under Abbas Mirza.
This enviroment was too hostile for Mohamed Pasha Jaff, and he would distance himself from his Uncle Kai Khosroo Beg. He along with his clan would become nomads in the plains of Shahrizor and within the Zagros mountains of Persia. Kai Khosroo Beg would pass into obscurity as his son Aziz Beg Jaff would succeed him. Mahmud Pasha Baban's grip on power would continue to weaken, and so would the Baban's hold on power.
While dwelling as a nomad. He would come to be despised by Abbas Mirza, who had began a campaign around 1839 to weaken and destroy his clan for they refused to pay taxes to the Persian army. Many times the Jaff clan would come under attack by Persian Calvary in the Zagros mountains and Shahrizor. Mohamed Jaff Pasha would fight back though, and formidable his resistance was against Abbas Mirza of Persia.
A French military officer, who was apart of a group of French advisors to the Persian army, had accompanied Abbas Mirza's daughter to Tehran, Princess Fekret Doulet. His name was Colonel Joseph Pierre Ferrier. The governor of Zohab Ibrahim Pasha would also accompany them. His convoy would come under attack by Mohamed Pasha Jaff's calvary. The guard would be overwhelmed, and Princess Fekret Doulet, Governor Ibrahim Pasha of Zohab, and Colonel Joseph Pierre Ferrier would be taken prisoner. Mohamed Pasha Jaff, in negotiation with Governor Ibrahim Pasha of Zohab, agreed to exchange them with Abbas Mirza for reparations for the affronts against his tribe. Mohamed Pasha Jaff would escort the Princess to Serpeul, where Abbas Mirza had his headquarters.  He would come to be respected by Colonel Joseph Pierre Ferrier and Governor Ibrahim Pasha of Zohab. Many Persians would come to hold a high opinion of him as he would eliminate all bandits and brigands, who roamed the countryside. 
He, however, had too many enemies, Jaff remnants, the Babans, and the Persians. The one person who was not his enemy was the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad, Suliaman Pasha. They also had many things in common, their enemies. Mohamed Pasha Jaff would approach the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad, and seal a pact of blood with him against the Babans and Persians. The Babans were not its former glory. Weakened by Mahmud Pasha Baban's blood feuds, the Babans and Persians would be crushed at the Battle of Koya by the armies of the Mamluk Vali of Baghdad Suliaman Pasha in 1847.
Mohamed Pasha Jaff would then gain all of the Shahrizor region from the Vali of Baghdad Suliaman Pasha, and he would establish his capitol at Gulambar. Khosroo Kai Beg's son, Aziz Beg Jaff, would sieze as the Chief of the Jaff tribe as Vali Suliaman Pasha would replace him with Mohamed Jaff Pasha. His rule would last for two decades until his death. Khosroo Kai Beg's son, Aziz Beg Jaff, would sieze as the Chief of the Jaff tribe as Vali Suliaman Pasha would replace him with Mohamed Jaff Pasha.
Adela Jaff Khanum, the strongwoman of Halabja, would come to dominate the Jaff tribe during much of the British Mandates of Mesopatamia and Iraq. She would come from the Ardalan tribe, a great tribe of Persia. It had been a great Khanate, which had ruled jointly with the Qajar throne in Tehran even intermarrying with them. The Ardalan were an important pillar to the Qajar throne as they were the Qajar's viziers. Their power base was in Sanandaj, which means "Fortress of the Shah." This was where Osman Pasha would take Adela Khanum as his bride in 1825, who was a daughter of a vizier to the Qajar throne. Adela Khanum came from a line of Persian Matriarchs, which had plageud the Ardalan tribe. Fath Ali Shah of the Qajar throne, an ally of Napoleon, had a daughter, Princess Hosn e Jahan, who would marry Khasrow Khan of the Ardalan. She would slowly begin to put the Ardalan under the complete dominion of the Qajar, depleting Khasrow Khan Ardalan of his power. Khasrow Khan would eventually meet a tragic end as he would die by poison in 1834. His offspring would become emboiled in rivalry, and eventually the Shah Fath Ali Qajar would remove them from power over the Ardalan, replacing them with his Uncle, Prince Farhad Mirza Mo Tamad Od Dowleh in 1867. Fortunately, Khasrow Khan Ardalan's sister Princess Noor Jahan would marry into the Vazir family in Sanandaj or government ministers, the Zarrinaal.
Osman Pasha Jaff was marrying into the legacy of the Persian Immortals, when he married Adela Khanum. She was the offspring of one of the elite noble families of Persia, whom had been a pillar to the current throne in Persia, the Qajar. They were the Ardalan of Sanandaj, whom Major Ely Banister Soane obtained much information about. The Ardalan had formed a strong emirate within Sanandaj in 1300 A.D. They claimed descent from Sultan Saladin, whom had saved the Ayyubid Caliphate from defeat by the Papal Juggernauts that had invaded Jerusalem during the Crusades in the 1100s. Their founder was Ardal Khan. They established themselves upon Ancient ruins from the Era of the Persian Immortals of the Sassanians and Achamenids, which would become the current city of Sanandaj. There would be a powerful conquerer, who would establish the Persian Ashfar throne over all Aryan people from the Caucasus to India in 1736 to 1747. The Peacock throne and the Koohinoor, which is one of the crown jewels, would originate from him. He would build towers of skulls from his enemies. The Ardalan and other Kurds would revolt against him in Khorosan, killing his soldiers and before he could march his army to meet the Kurds, he would be cut down by his own men at Quchan in 1747. The Ashfar would fall from power in Tehran, and the Kurds would gain the Persian throne under the Shah Karim Khan Zand in 1760. Shah Karim Khan Zand would appoint Khasrou Khan Ardalan Vali over all Kurdish lands in the new Persian Vilayet of Kordistan. Unfortunately, the Zand throne was plagued with infighting, and Khasrow Khan Ardalan slowly began to turn against the Zand and began to support the Qajars to the throne. When Agha Muhammed Khan Qajar overthrew the Zand in 1789, the Ardalan became more powerful then ever. Khasrow Khan Ardalan had even sent troops to help Muhammed Khan Qajar to overthrow Shah Lotf Ali Khan Zand, whom had come to power through infighting within the Zand dynasty,  in battles around Kermanshah. Amanollah Khan Ardalan would succeed his father Khasrow Khan Ardalan and Amanollah Khan Ardalan's reign would become a golden age for the Ardalan. The Ardalan and the Qajar throne would grow close as the Qajar came to rely on the Ardalan as an important ally for the region. His son Khasrow Khan Ardalan II would marry Princess Hosn e Jahan, who was daughter of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, the son of Agha Mohamed Khan Qajar. Khasrow Khan Ardalan would succeed his father Amonollah Khan Ardalan in 1825. Fath Ali Shah Qajar together with Princess Hosn e Jehan would begin to become increasingly tyrannical over the Ardalan. The Ardalan would come to respect Princess Hosn e Jehan more than Khasrow Khan Ardalan II. Fath Ali Shah Qajar would finally have Khosraw Khan Ardalan II poisened in 1834, and Princess Hosn e Jehan would have complete control over the Vilayet of Kordestan, which she would rule with an iron fist. Khosrow Khan Ardalan would leave Princess Hosn e Jehan two sons. One of them was Ghulam Shah Ardalan, who was Adela Khanum Jaff's father. Ghulam Shah Ardalan would be at the heal of the true ruler of the Kordestan Vilayet, Princess Hosn e Jehan. Ghulam Shah Ardalan was Adela Khanum's father, the father of the daughter whom Osman Pasha Jaff had wedded at the Khasrowbad Residential Palace in Sanandaj in 1825.Soane, Ely Banister, To Mesopatamia in disguise, 1912 pg 377-378, pg 218
Soane, Ely Banister, Report on Suliamania district of Kurdistan, 1910 pg. 62-65

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